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Piperazine is used in the treatment of parasitic worm infections.
Piperazine belongs to class of drugs called anthelmintic. It works by paralyzing the worms and making them to pass in the stool. It is effective against the intestinal nematodes roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), pinworm and threadworm (Enterobius vermicularis). Piperazine produces a neuromuscular block leads to muscle paralysis of the worms which are consequently dislodged and expelled in the faeces.
Nausea, Headache, Vomiting, Dizziness, Abnormal liver function tests, Fever, Abdominal pain, Hair loss, Vertigo
Ephedrine is used in the treatment of hypotension following spinal anesthesia.
Ephedrine works on the blood vessels and increases the blood flow to heart and lungs, thereby improving the disease condition.
Systemic hypertension (high blood pressure), Insomnia (difficulty in sleeping)
Guaifenesin is used in the treatment of cough with mucus.
Guaifenesin works by decreasing the stickiness of mucus (phlegm) and helps in its removal from the airways.
Nausea, Itchy rash, Hypersensitivity reaction, Stomach pain, Diarrhoea, Vomiting
Kidney ablation, nerve block, poisoning of ethylene glycol and methanol, premature labour.
Alcohol stimulates GABA at GABA-A receptors and inhibits the opening of NMDA receptor/channels by preventing glutamate. As an antidote, it inhibits the rapid metabolism of methanol to toxic intermediates eg, formaldehyde and formic acid due to its greater affinity to alcohol dehydrogenase. Thus, the toxicity of methanol is delayed or to an extent hindered.
Drowsiness, Acute gastritis, Balance disorder (loss of balance), Central pontine myelinolysis, Central nervous system depression, Degeneration of mammilary bodies, Disinhibition, Distorted speech and loss of muscle control, Fetal alcohol syndrome, Liver toxicity, Korsakoff(s) psychosis, Wernicke(s) disaese